I have a robot which sends messages to an incoming Webhook in Microsoft Teams. Although in this robot I request for the user input, you can modify the keyword to use in any development or production robot and programmatically send either the success or failure messages. You could also have additional status depending on your robot, but that will require modifications to the keyword as well.
You can access the robot script from this Github repo:
Validation of the approach:
The same procedure I use here is running for the last 4 months in a UiPath production robot so this is tried and tested way of sending messages to Microsoft Teams.
Teams Webhook Alternative in Robocorp
I see that there also is another approach to integrate Teams and Robocorp suggested by @RoboHeart Robocorp Cloud Webhook > Power Automate > MS Teams